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Ford Ranger 4-Cylinder Engines

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Trucks Of The Month

Rowdy Fitzgerald

August 2014 OTOTM

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August 2014 MTOTM

 

  
 
 
 

 

These motors are commonly referred to as either the Lima or simply the 2.0, 2.3 or 2.5 OHC (Over Head Cam) engines. They started life based on the German designed 2.0 EAO sport motors that were first introduced to this country in the Mercury Capri’s from the early 1970’s. They share nothing with the 2.3 - 2.5 liter HSC motors that were offered in the passenger car line from 1984 - 1991.

The 2.3 first debuted in the 1974 Pinto using a progressive 2bbl Weber/Holley carburetor and a points distributor. In 1975 they were upgraded to a Duraspark ignition system. They remained unchanged until about 1981 when the intake ports were changed from an oval to a 'D' shape (flat floor). 

The 2.0/2.3 liter versions that were offered in Rangers starting in 1983 used a different head having four evenly spaced round holes of equal size. A 2.0 liter 1bbl carbureted version was offered in Rangers from 1983 - 1985, and in 1987 - 1988 with a 2bbl carburetor in some parts of the US, Canada and Mexico. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) was added to the engines in 1985. In 1989 the 2.3 was changed to a DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition utilizing a new 8-plug head ( 2-plugs per cylinder). This head had larger evenly spaced D-shaped intake ports and was used until the end of production of the 2.5 in 2001. 

The 2.5 liter version was only offered from 1998 To 2001, when the engine was replaced by a 2.3 liter DOHC Duratec based engine. The 2.5 was a stroked (by 7 mm) version of the 2.3 OHC Ford Ranger engine. It also used higher-flow cylinder heads for better intake and combustion. It was replaced in 2001 by the Mazda-derived Duratec 23.

In 1979 - 1981 a high compression draw thru carbureted turbo version of the 2.3 was offered. In 1983 - 1988 a lower compression EFI turbo version was offered in T-birds, Cougars, Mustang SVOs and Merkur XR4Ti’s (through 1989).

Some of the changes to the motor over the years were:

  • Rear main seal changed from a two piece to a one piece design in 1986

  • Roller cams were installed from 1989 on in Rangers and 1991 on in Mustangs

  • Crankshaft main journal sizes were reduced starting in 1988

  • CPS (Cam Position Sensor) was added starting in 1995 (1994 in California). At this time Ford changed to a 104-pin computer (it was a 60-pin) and moved the DIS functions into the computer, previously the DIS system had a TFI module as a separate unit mounted on the front of the intake manifold.

2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5 Specifications

2.0L (1983 - 1988)

Displacement 122 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.52 x 3.13 inches
Compression Ratio 9.0:1
Fuel System Carburetor
Fuel Pressure 5 - 7 psi
Horsepower
73hp @ 4000 RPM (1983 - 1986)
80hp @ 4200 RPM (1987 - 1988)
Torque
107 @ 2400 RPM (1983 - 1986)
106 @ 2600 RPM (1987 - 1988)
Oil Pressure 40 - 60 PSI @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug AWSF-52C
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Ignition Timing 6 degrees BTDC (1984 is 8 deg.)
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor Rotation Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 quarts
Cooling System 6.5 quarts

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 - 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 - 90 ft-lbs)]
Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 - 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 - 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25 - 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 - 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 - 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 - 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 - 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 - 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 - 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 - 23 ft-lbs)]

2.3L (1989 - 1997)

Displacement 140 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.780 x 3.126 inches
Compression Ratio
9.0:1 (1983 - 1988)
9.2:1 (1990 - 1993)
9.4:1 (1994 - 1997)
Fuel System
Carburetor (1983 - 1984)
Multipot Fuel Injection (MFI) (1985 - 1997)
Fuel Pressure
5 - 7 psi (1983 - 1984)
30 - 40 psi (1985 - 1997)
Horsepower
79hp @ 3800 RPM (1983 - 1985) Manual
82hp @ 4200 RPM (1983 - 1985) Auto
90hp @ 4000 RPM (1986 - 1988)
100hp @ 4600 RPM (1989 - 1995)
112hp @ 4800 RPM (1996 - 1997)
Torque
124 @ 2200 RPM (1983 - 1985) Manual
126 @ 2200 RPM (1983 - 1985) Auto
130 @ 1800 RPM (1986 - 1988)
133 @ 2600 RPM (1989 - 1995)
135 @ 2400 RPM (1996 - 1997)
Oil Pressure 40 - 60 psi @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug
AWSF-44C (1984 - 1990)
AWSR-32PP (1993 - 1995)
AWSR-32F (1996 - 1997)
Spark Plug Gap 0.044
Ignition Timing 10 degrees BTDC
Firing Order 1-3-4-2
Distributor Rotation Clockwise

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 Quarts
Cooling System (Quarts) W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head
Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 - 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 - 90 ft-lbs)] (1989 - 1995)
51 ft-lbs (1996 - 1997)
Main Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (50 - 60 ft-lbs), 2nd (80 - 90 ft-lbs)]
Rod Bearing Bolts Torque in 2 steps [1st (25 - 30 ft-lbs), 2nd (30 - 36 ft-lbs)]
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 100 - 120 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 - 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 - 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (14 - 21 ft-lbs)]
Exhaust Manifold Torque in 2 steps [1st (5 - 7 ft-lbs), 2nd (16 - 23 ft-lbs)]

2.5L MFI (1998 - 2001)

Displacement 152 CID
Type Single Over Head Cam
Bore x Stroke 3.780 x 3.401 inches
Compression Ratio 9.1:1
Fuel System MFI (Multiport Fuel Injection)
Fuel Pressure 56 - 72 psi
Horsepower
117hp @ 4500 RPM (1998 - 1999)
119hp @ 5000 RPM (2000 - 2001)
Torque
149ft-lbs @ 2500 RPM (1998 - 1999)
146ft-lbs. @ 3000 RPM (2000 - 2001)
Oil Pressure 40 - 60 psi @ 2000 RPM

Tune Up

Spark Plug SP-432
Spark Plug Gap 0.044 inch
Firing Order 1-3-4-2

Capacities

Oil Capacity With Filter Change 5 Quarts
Cooling System (Quarts) W/AC- 7.2 /  W/O AC 6.5

Torque Specifications

Cylinder Head 51 ft-lbs
Main Bearing Bolts 75 - 85 ft-lbs
Rod Bearing Bolts 30 - 36 ft-lbs
Crankshaft Pulley Bolts 103 - 133 ft-lbs
Flywheel to Crankshaft Bolts 56 - 64 ft-lbs
Intake Manifold 19 - 28 ft-lbs
Exhaust Manifold 14 - 21 ft-lbs
 

2.0 / 2.3 / 2.5 Firing Orders

2.0L and 1983 - 1988 2.3L Engines
Firing Order: 1-3-4-2
Distributor Rotation: Clockwise
1989–97 2.3L and 1998-01 2.5L Engines
Firing Order: 1–3–4–2
Distributorless Ignition

Differences between major engine parts are as follows:

Blocks:

The 2.0 is an underbored 2.3.  With the exception of the bore, the blocks are identical to all 2.3’s

1975 - 1988 2.3’s are interchangeable

1989 - 1994 2.3's are the same as the 1983 - 1988 2.3’s but have a smaller main journal saddle.  The oil pan seal surface was changed in 1987 to eliminate the (4) piece seal and holes were added in the front to bolt on the DIS’s crank trigger assembly.

1995 - 2001's are similar to the 1989 - 1995’s but a Cam Position Sensor was added behind the aux sprocket. The hole for the distributor was eliminated and the oil pump was moved in place of the aux. shaft itself.

Turbo blocks are identical to the 1983 - 1988 Ranger blocks but have an additional boss with a hole threaded in the passenger side about ½ way back that provides a place to drain the lubricating oil back into the engine from the turbo.

Cranks:

2.0 and early 2.3 cranks are identical.

Late 2.3 cranks have smaller main journals.

2.5 cranks are identical to 2.3’s except they have a longer stroke.

Rods:

2.0 and 2.3 (including turbo) rods are identical up through at least 1994. In fact they still have the original D4 (’74) casting number on them.

Pistons:

The 2.0 pistons are unique and don’t interchange.

The 2.3 pistons are all the same excluding the turbo versions which were forged. Low compression (8.0:1) in the 1983 - 1888’s and high compression (9.0:1) in the 1979 - 1981’s.

The 2.5 pistons are similar to the 2.3’s but have a different wrist pin height.

Heads: 

All 2.0/2.3/2.5 heads will physically bolt in place of each other.  They all have similar exhaust port shape and placement. All cams are interchangeable as long as they are used with the proper followers. Later model (1995 and newer) roller cam followers cannot be easily swapped onto an older head as the valve stem size was reduced in the newer heads and matching slot in the follower was reduced. Early 2.0 and 2.3 heads have the same small round intake ports spaced evenly apart. They differ from each other in their valve sizes though.

Head Variations:

There are several variations on the 2.3 heads though they break down into (4) distinct types:

1) Passenger car oval port heads - 1974 - 1980 Mustang, Pinto, Fairmont, Bobcat, etc.

2) Passenger car D-port head - 1981 - 1995? T-bird, Mustang, Etc.

3) Truck round port - 1983 - 1985 Ranger

4) Truck D-port - 1989 - 2001 Ranger. The 1989 - 1994's and 1995 - 2001's have different combustion chambers and ports. It is thought that the newer head is better designed.

Part Numbers:

The following parts and information are from the Federal Mogul website.  The part numbers are theirs and are Sealed Power numbers.  Those in parenthesis are: FP = Fel-Pro, FM = Federal Mogul

Cylinder Head

Part Years Covered Part Number
Head Bolts 83-01 ES72137 (FP)
Exhaust Valve (1.500” head, .3414” stem dia, 4.792” OAL) 83-94 V3943
Exhaust Valve (1.500” head, .2740” stem dia, 4.8070” OAL) 95-01 V4553
Intake Valve (1.735” head, .3419” stem dia, 4.787” OAL) 83-94 V2170
Intake Valve (1.735” head, .2750” stem dia, 4.787” OAL) 95-01 V4488
Valve Guide (.3440 ID, 2.1880” OAL-spiral reamed & flg) 83-94 VG1372
Valve Guide (Threaded, .2765” ID, 1.9300” OAL) 95-97 VG1389T
Valve Spring (1.9800” free height w/ damper) 83-94 VS1459
Valve Spring (2.0197” free height) 95-01 VS1647
Valve Keeper/Lock 83-94 VK205
Valve Keeper/Lock (Hard) 83-94 VK205R
Valve Keeper/Lock 95-01 VK287
Valve Spring Insert [(shims) (A=.060” B=.030” C=.015”) 83-94 259-102A or B or C

Engine

Part Years Covered Part Number
Connecting Rods (Forging #D42E-AA) 1974 - 1997 R25BJ (FM)
Pistons - 2.3L (2-2.00mm/1-4.76mm rings, Comp Dist:1.578”. Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1977 - 1991 H435P
Pistons - 2.3L (2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.575”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1983 - 1994 H537P
Pistons - 2.3L (2-1.5mm/1-4.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.578”, Pin Dia: .9122”
8.7:1 Comp Ratio, Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1982 - 1989 495P
Pistons - 2.3? (2-1.5mm/1-3.00mm rings, Comp Dist: 1.335”, Pin Dia: .9122”
Flat Head- w/2 Valve Reliefs)
1995 - 1997 H676P
Oil Pump (4/8/85 and older) (Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminum Oil Pan) 1980 - 1985 224-41160
Oil Pump High Volume (Not For Use w/ Cast Aluminum Oil Pan) 1980 - 1995 224-41160V
Oil Pump (4/9/85 and newer) 1986 - 1994 224-41127
Oil Pump Shaft 1980 - 1994 224-61160
Oil pump screen 1977 - 1985 224-12160
Oil pump screen 1986 - 1994 224-13160

Performance Parts:

If you're looking for performance parts, you should check out these sites:

Esslinger Engineering 

They have been a dominating force in four-cylinder Ford performance products for over thirty years. They produce engines and products that have powered everything from off-road trucks and midgets to ministocks and hydro-planes. Along the way, they have helped customers achieve countless wins and championships. They specialize in single overhead cam 2.3 and 2.0 liter Ford engines. They provide hundreds of performance products, including complete engines, short blocks, Aluminum cylinder heads, pulley kits, oil pans, carburetors, manifolds, crankshafts, cams, distributors and almost everything imaginable.

Camcraft

They have a selection of cams for most engines found in the Ford Ranger & Bronco vehicles including the 2.0 and 2.3.

Race Engineering

Race Engineering specializes in racing and high-performance internal engine parts. They specialize in forged pistons, forged connecting rods, billet connecting rods, crankshafts, piston rings, gaskets, MLS gaskets, race bearings, camshafts, valves and valve train components.  Balanced rotating assemblies are carefully engineered for most all engines. We have developed a series of assemblies (including strokers) for 4 cylinder Ford motors (2.3, 2.5 & stroker Ford 4 cylinders for oval track/mini stock).

Racer Walsh

Racer Walsh carries numerous 2.0 and 2.3 parts.

NeedHP.com

Check them out for a variety of Ford 4-cylinder parts.

Kurtz Kustomz

Kurtz Kustomz carries the True-Rev Max Induction kit which allows your engine to breathe more air by eliminating all of the power robbing restrictions associated with the stock system, resulting in more horsepower, better low end torque, crisp throttle response, and overall increased efficiency. This is a complete bolt-on kit that replaces your stock airbox assembly.

Speedwaymotors.com

Speedway Motors carries Ford 4-cylinder parts.

Modifications:

Air Muffler:

Start off with an improved air intake to let the engine breath better.  Below left you can see the Air Muffler and the baffle. The air muffler (on the left) goes between the air cleaner and the throttle body. The baffle to the right of it comes off the front of the air cleaner inside the body of your Ranger above the wheel well.  As you can see in the picture below right, the air muffler was replaced with a piece of stainless but you can use PVC pipe. This will allow more air flow into your motor, increase HP, and make your motor a little bit louder. Your air cleaner is in two (2) parts; air cleaner canister, and mass air flow sensor. Open your air cleaner and remove the air filter, then unbolt the can in which the filter was in, when you pull the can off, the baffle will be attached to it. Remove the baffle, and reinstall the air cleaner. This will add more air flow, HP, and sound to your Ranger.

 

Connect to the Internet if you can't see this image.

Connect to the Internet if you can't see this image.


Replacement Air Intake:

K&N offers an AirCharger replacement air intake for 1995+ 2.3 Rangers

Porting:

Port your upper and lower intake.  The intakes don't line up diameter to diameter.  Porting opens this up and allows better flow.  Knife edge the intake side of the throttle body to remove the front lip.  You can use a Dremel tool to grind, sand and buff this area to obtain a smooth airflow in to the engine.  You can also mill down the butterfly to blend in to the shaft for a smoother air flow.

For details on how to port your heads, click HERE

Ignition:

Accel - Makes a coil pack for 1998 - 1999 Ford 4-cylinder.  For more information click HERE.

MSD - Manufactures a DIS ignition system along with wiring harnesses.  Find their parts at Summit Racing.

JetChip - Makes a module to reprogram the engines computer. Click HERE 

Exhaust:

Pacesetter offers headers for the 2.3 HEREDynomax and Gibson make cat-back exhaust systems for the Ranger.

Turbos:

You can swap in a turbocharged 4-cylinder instead of trying to adapt a turbo to your engine.  For info on turbo engines see Turbos.  For info on the swap look HERE.

Better Gearing:

If our looking for more low end torque, upgrade your rear gears to a lower (numerically higher) ratio.

Electric Fan:

Flex-A-Lite makes a replacement fan for the Ranger so you can replace your clutch driven fan to reduce drag on the engine.

What Others Have Done:

'Odysseus' - I recently had some trouble with the truck bucking sporadically, or when it rained. The EGR valve was sticking. I removed the hose that comes out from the fuel injector to the valve and plugged it with an ink pen. Cleared it right up. I actually noticed it has a little more power too. Just trying to save you guys some trouble.

 

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